COVID-19 and the Impact on Immigrant Communities

Introduction

 

COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has impacted the lives of millions in the United States. Although preventative measures and resources such as social distancing, increased testing sites and relief programs have been enacted, immigrant communities are still disproportionately affected by COVID-19. 

 

There are currently 46.7 million immigrants who reside in the United States, while 11 million are undocumented.4 States with the highest total confirmed COVID-19 cases include California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, and Texas (Figure 1). According to the Migration Policy Institute, out of those states listed, California, Florida, Texas and Illinois have the highest immigrant populations as of 2018.7 Consequently, during this pandemic, the inequalities and social determinants immigrant communities endure everyday increases their risk of COVID-19.

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 References

 

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  2.  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Symptoms of Coronavirus. Centers for Disease Control and  Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html. Accessed on July 6, 2020.

  3.  COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE). John Hopkins  University of Medicine. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html. Updated July 13th, 2020. Accessed on  July 13th, 2020.

  4.  COVID-19: Data. New York City Dept. of Health. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19- data.page. Updated on July 6, 2020. Accessed on July 6,2020.

  5.  LA County COVID-19 Surveillance Dashboard. LA County Public Health. Updated on July 6, 2020.  Accessed on July 6,2020.  http://dashboard.publichealth.lacounty.gov/covid19_surveillance_dashboard/.

  6.  Montecino-Rodriguez E, Berent-Maoz B, Dorshkind K. Causes, consequences, and reversal of immune  system aging. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2013;123(3):958-965. doi:10.1172/jci64096.

  7.   Pinti M, Appay V, Campisi J, et al. Aging of the immune system: Focus on inflammation and  vaccination. European Journal of Immunology. 2016;46(10):2286-2301. doi:10.1002/eji.201546178.

  8.   Weinberger B, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Schwanninger A, Weiskopf D, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Biology  of Immune Responses to Vaccines in Elderly Persons. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008;46(7):1078- 1084. doi:10.1086/529197.

  9.  Amanna IJ. Balancing the Efficacy and Safety of Vaccines in the Elderly. Open Longevity Science.  2012;6(1):64-72. doi:10.2174/1876326x01206010064.

  10.  Yamey G, Schäferhoff M, Hatchett R, Pate M, Zhao F, McDade K. Ensuring global access to COVID-19  vaccines. The Lancet. 2020;137(3529):890-893. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)18394-2

  11.  Cai X, Bai H, Zhang X. Vaccines And Advanced Vaccines: -A landscape for advanced vaccine  technology against infectious disease ,COVID-19 and tumor. 2020. doi:10.31219/osf.io/ypgx4

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  13.  Perlman S, Author AffiliationsFrom the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Others NZand,  Others MKand, L. R. Feldstein and Others, J. H. Beigel and Others. Another Decade, Another  Coronavirus: NEJM. New England Journal of Medicine.  https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe2001126 . Published February 20, 2020. Accessed  July 14, 2020. 

  14.  Trials C. Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 2019-nCoV Vaccine (mRNA-1273) for Prophylaxis of  SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) - Full Text View. Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov.  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04283461 . Published 2020. Accessed July 14, 2020. 

  15.  Mulligan MJ, Lyke KE, Kitchin N, et al. Phase 1/2 Study to Describe the Safety and Immunogenicity of  a COVID-19 RNA Vaccine Candidate (BNT162b1) in Adults 18 to 55 Years of Age: Interim Report.  medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.30.20142570v1 . Published January  1, 2020. Accessed July 14, 2020. 

  16.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Accelerates Clinical Trials, Prepares for  Manufacturing of COVID-19 Vaccines. HHS.gov. https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2020/03/30/hhs-accelerates-clinical-trials-prepares-manufacturing-covid-19-vaccines.html. Published March 30, 2020.  Accessed July 14, 2020. 

  17.  Modernatx.com. 2020. Moderna’S Work On A COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate | Moderna, Inc.. online.  Available at: https://www.modernatx.com/modernas-work-potential-vaccine-against-covid-19 .  Accessed 14 July 2020.