Who Should be Vaccinated for COVID-19 in New York City and Los Angeles?
 

The WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 and since then the world has been tremendously affected by this disease [1]. A vaccine for COVID-19 is essential for prevention of further disease and to establish a “new normal” in the world. 

As research for a vaccine continues, we explore the demographic of millennials ages 18-44 years old particularly in New York city and Los Angeles,  as a reference population for COVID-19 vaccination.

 

The United States alone has had over 3.3 million confirmed cases and roughly 135,000 COVID-19 related deaths as of July 13th, 2020 [2].  New York City and Los Angeles were the few cities that experienced the pandemic first in the U.S, and in a predominant manner.

How is COVID-19 doing in New York City and Los Angeles? 

 

In New York City’s wave of COVID-19, there was 6,378 cases and 597 deaths at its peak [3]. While, in Los Angeles the wave has reached 3,045 cases and 58 deaths and is continuing to progress. The chart below helps you see:

  1. Identify the number of daily cases and deaths in both NYC (left side) and LA (right side)
  2. Compare the number of  cases and deaths between  NYC (left side) and LA (right side)

 

Chart 1 is showcasing information from February 28th, 2020 to July 7th, 2020 [3,4]. 

Chart 2  showcases information from July 8th, 2020 to July 31st, 2020 [5,6]. NYC has declined to a maximum number of 471 cases and 20 death within the stated time frame. While LA has a maximum number of 3,335 cases and 49 deaths within stated time period. 

In this chart you can identify and compare the number of cases and deaths in NYC (left side) and LA (right side). 

 

How are different age groups doing in New York City and Los Angeles?

 

In both Los Angeles and New York City, there is a higher case count among individuals ages 18 to 64; however, there the case-fatality rate is greater among older adults, ages 65 and up [3,4]. The height of the bars in Chart 3 represent the case-fatality rates as a percentage, and the color of the bars indicates the sum of cumulative case count of Los Angeles and New York City, respectively.

Old age and declined immunity are linked

 

As individuals age, the immune system weakens due to a decreased production of immune cells causing the elderly to be more susceptible to illness [7].   This weakened immune system causes vaccines to be less effective in the elderly as they are unable to produce a robust antibody response. Younger individuals, ages 17 to 59, when given a seasonal influenza vaccine, had an immune response that was 2 to 4 times greater than that of the elderly [8].

What is the latest on COVID-19 Vaccination Research?

 

As of early April 2020, the research and development landscape for clinical trial activity includes 115 vaccine candidates, 78 confirmed as active while 37 remain unconfirmed or undetermined [9]. Of the confirmed 78 active projects, 73 projects are at preclinical stages and moving fast to clinical development [9].  Implementation of a variety of trials are all in effort to report safety, immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and tolerability of proposed vaccinations [10,11]. In addition to efficacy assessments, trials will examine the vaccine’s safety in healthy adult volunteers with ranging eligibility criteria per clinical trial. The efforts being made in vaccine production should follow three general rules; manufacture and deployment at scale, speed, and global access [12]. These imperative rules are a far cry from traditional vaccine development, which on average can take over 10 years from start to finish, even in comparison to the first Ebola vaccine created in a 5-year accelerated timeline [9]. This rapid progress in production within the pharmaceutical industry clearly demonstrates the commitment and active efforts in protecting people at home and abroad. 

Click below to read more about the analysis of COVID-19 vaccination and age demographics in NYC and LA. You can also download our report in the link below.

Read More

Authors

Gabriela Burgos 

Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology | NYU Tandon School of Engineering 

Masters of Public Health Candidate: Epidemiology | NYU School of Global Public Health

Maura Gossen

Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Sciences | Marquette University College of Health Sciences

Masters of Public Health Candidate: Epidemiology | NYU School of Global Public Health

Sarah Griglun

Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science | Sacred Heart University

Masters of Public Health Candidate: Epidemiology | NYU School of Global Public Health

References:

 

  1.  World Health Organization. Timeline: WHO’s COVID-19 response. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/interactive-timeline#!

  2.  COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE). John Hopkins University of Medicine. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html. Updated July 13th, 2020. Accessed on July 13th, 2020

  3.  COVID-19: Data. New York City Dept. of Health. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data.page. Updated on July 7, 2020. Accessed on July 7,2020.

  4.  LA County COVID-19 Surveillance Dashboard. LA County Public Health. Updated on July 7, 2020. Accessed on July 7, 2020 http://dashboard.publichealth.lacounty.gov/covid19_surveillance_dashboard/.

  5.  COVID-19: Data. New York City Dept. of Health. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data.page. Updated on July 31, 2020. Accessed on July 31, ,2020.

  6.  LA County COVID-19 Surveillance Dashboard. LA County Public Health. Updated on July 31, 2020. Accessed on July 31, 2020 http://dashboard.publichealth.lacounty.gov/covid19_surveillance_dashboard/.

  7.  Montecino-Rodriguez E, Berent-Maoz B, Dorshkind K. Causes, consequences, and reversal of immune system aging. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2013;123(3):958-965. doi:10.1172/jci64096.

  8.  Amanna IJ. Balancing the Efficacy and Safety of Vaccines in the Elderly. Open Longevity Science. 2012;6(1):64-72. doi:10.2174/1876326x01206010064.

  9.  Cai X, Bai H, Zhang X. Vaccines And Advanced Vaccines: -A landscape for advanced vaccine technology against infectious disease ,COVID-19 and tumor. 2020. doi:10.31219/osf.io/ypgx4

  10.  Trials C. Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 2019-nCoV Vaccine (mRNA-1273) for Prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) - Full Text View. Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04283461 . Published 2020. Accessed July 14, 2020.

  11.  Mulligan MJ, Lyke KE, Kitchin N, et al. Phase 1/2 Study to Describe the Safety and Immunogenicity of a COVID-19 RNA Vaccine Candidate (BNT162b1) in Adults 18 to 55 Years of Age: Interim Report. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.30.20142570v1 . Published January 1, 2020. Accessed July 14, 2020.

  12.  Yamey G, Schäferhoff M, Hatchett R, Pate M, Zhao F, McDade K. Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines. The Lancet. 2020;137(3529):890-893. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)18394-2