COVID-19 Data Project

The newest expansion of the COVID-19 Data Project is focused on vaccine administration at the state- and county-level across the United States, hereon referred to as Vaccine Data Tracking.

About the COVID-19 Data Project

 

The COVID-19 Data Project was created in March 2020 to satisfy the driving need for accessible data tracking of the spread of the coronavirus across the United States. Initially starting with the collection of cumulative case counts of COVID-19 and mortalities in the United States and its territories, at the county-level, the COVID-19 Data Project has since expanded to include analysis of policies relating to COVID-19, collection of cumulative case counts by race and ethnicity, and various intern-led research projects relating to the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Report Contributors

   
Kaiynat Amir Rachel Church  

Background

 

The United States Food and Drug Administration authorized public use of the first COVID-19 vaccine in December of 2020. The Pfizer vaccine was the first approved, and clinical trials found it to be 95% effective in prevention. The approval of the Pfizer vaccine was followed by an emergency authorization of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18th, 2020. The Moderna vaccine was found to be 94.1% effective in preventing infection via clinical trials. The third vaccine approved for emergency use in the United States was Johnson & Johnson’s single-shot coronavirus vaccine, which was approved in February. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine was found to be 66.3% effective in prevention via clinical trials.


As vaccines began to be approved for use, health departments were advised in a 12/22/20 interim recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the Centers for Disease Control to roll-out vaccine administration in phases, prioritizing front-line health workers and those in long-term care facilities. The phased approach was introduced due to the limited quantity of doses available. As vaccine administration continued to roll-out, the need for aggregate collection of vaccine administration at the county-level was needed, and the Vaccine Data Tracking team for the COVID-19 Data Project was created mid-March.


The Vaccine Data Tracking Project is unique in that it is one of the only datasets collecting vaccine administration data at the county-level across the United States. This team was created in March of 2021 as states and health departments began administering vaccines and reporting information regarding administration. State dashboards were assessed to determine if information regarding vaccine administration was being reported and if county-level information was available. States were then categorized by the rate at which they update their data (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly, presence of historical data), and data collection began on 18 out of the identified 50 states, plus Puerto Rico and DC. This data allows for visualization of how vaccination administration is occurring throughout the United States. This data gives the public knowledge regarding the rate of vaccination across the United States. The data will be updated monthly and is available to be downloaded for further analysis as a .csv file.


Structure of the Dataset

 

The data is structured in wide form. This is how the first dose in the United States would be represented at the county level for April 1, 2021: 05000US06001, Alameda County California, CA, 1, 0, 0, 1. This is how the first dose would be represented at the state level: 04000US06, California(state), CA, 1, 0, 0, 1. Both the county and state data begin with the state/county, followed by the state identification number/county identification number. At both the state and the county level, the data recorded are first doses, followed by the number of second doses, the number of single doses, then the number of total doses. At the top of each state, there is a state totals row and then a row with the state name. The state totals row is taken directly from the state dashboard. The row with the state name is calculated by the sum of the county information for that respective state. Variables used in our data include:


  • 1st Dose_: one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine received/administered
  • 2nd Dose_: two doses of a two-dose series of COVID-19 vaccine received/administered or fully vaccinated
  • Single Dose_: one dose of a single dose COVID-19 vaccine administered
  • Total Doses_: total number of doses administered Each state varies in how they define each variable and how they categorize single-dose vaccines. In order to account for those differences, we went through each dashboard and consolidated their definitions into one spreadsheet and attempted to standardize the definitions as much as possible. Dashboards will be reviewed on a monthly basis to reverify definitions and capture any changes that may not have been apparent when completing data entry.

Table 1. Variable Definitions by State

State First Dose Second Dose Single Dose Total Doses
Alabama Number of people receiving one or more doses includes those receiving any dose (first or second dose of either Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine and those receiving the 1 dose of the single shot of the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) Janssen vaccine). Number of people who have completed vaccine series includes those who received the second dose of either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine and those who received 1 dose of the single-shot of Johnson & Johnson (J&J) Janssen. This means that doses of J&J will be counted in both categories of number receiving one or more doses and fully vaccinated/completed vaccine series. Anyone looking at these metrics should not add the two together to get the total doses administered. The "fully vaccinated" totals are subset of the "Number of people receiving one or more doses" Total number of Johnson doses administered Doses Administered is the cumulative count of individual COVID-19 vaccine doses, including first and second doses, administered by Alabama providers as reported by the providers in ImmPRINT
Alaska People with at least one dose (4/3/21) People fully vaccinated. (4/3/21) Total doses administered (4/3/21)
Arizona Number of people who have received at least one dose is the number of unique individuals who have received COVID-19 vaccine. Number of people fully vaccinated is the number of people who received a valid, complete vaccine series. Total number of COVID-19 vaccine doses administered
Arkansas People fully vaccinated Doses Given (county level totals are obtained from "people fully vaccinated" - 2nd dose)
California Number of individuals who have received at least one dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine. -3/22/2021 "fully vaccinated:" Number of individuals who have received two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, or one dose of the Janssen vaccine. - 3/22/2021 Number of COVID-19 vaccine doses administered and reported to the California Immunization Registry (CAIR2), the Healthy Futures Registry, and the San Diego Immunization Registry. - 3/22/2021
Colorado Total given only: people immunized with one dose Totals given only (no county level): people fully immunized Totals given only (no county level) Total doses administered - 4/03/2021
Connecticut A person who has received one dose of any vaccine is considered to have received at least one dose. -4/1/2021 A person is considered fully vaccinated if they have received 2 doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines or 1 dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The fully vaccinated are a subset of the number who have received at least one dose. -4/1/2021 Total number of doses administered.
Delaware Total Persons with only 1 Dose of 2-Dose Series - 4/1/2021 Total Persons with 2 Doses of 2-Dose Series - 4/1/2021 Total Persons with 1 Dose of 1-Dose Series - 4/1/2021 Total Doses Administered - 4/1/2021
District of Columbia The number of COVID-19 Vaccine who have either partially or fully completed the vaccine regimen for COVID-19 The number of COVID-19 Vaccine who have completed the vaccine regimen for COVID-19. the total number of all administered vaccine
Florida First dose: current number of people who have only received their first dose of the Moderna or Pfizer vaccine. Series Completed: current number of people who have received both Moderna or Pfizer vaccine doses or one Johnson & Johnson dose and are considered fully immunized. Completed 1 dose series First dose + series complete = Total people vaccinated
Georgia At Least One Dose: Number of residents that have had one or more doses of vaccine Fully Vaccinated: Number of residents that have completed the vaccine series (this may be one or two vaccines depending on the manufacturer) # Administered
Hawaii Initiating - persons who have received a single dose of any vaccine 4/3/21 Completing - persons who have received two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or a single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine 4/3/21 Completing - persons who have received two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or a single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine 4/3/21 Total vaccines administered 4/3/21
Idaho received one dose of a two dose series -3/23 "fully vaccinated"-received single dose of singe series OR two doses of a two dose series -3/23 Vaccinated persons/total persons vaccinated
Illinois Determined by taking the total administered - total fully vaccinated - 3/22/2021 Reports total fully vaccinated -3/22/2021 Total Administered Doses – This is the total number of doses (i.e. shots in arms) that have been reported to IDPH. - 3/22/2021
Indiana Initial dose of 2-series vaccine - 3/22/2021 2nd dose of 2-series vaccine administered -3/22/2021 single dose vaccines administered -3/22/2021 Total doses administered - 3/22/2021
Iowa "two dose series initiated" - 3/22/2021 "two dose series completed" - 3/22/2021 "single dose series completed" - 3/22/2021 "total doses administered" - 3/22/2021
Kansas Percent of Kansas Vaccinated: Represents the number of people with at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine reported in KS WebIZ as a fraction of the total population of Kansas OR Kansans Vaccinated with One Dose - 5/05/2021 Kansans Completed COVID-19 Vaccine Series - 5/05/2021 Represents the total number of all COVID-19 vaccine doses that have been given to people in Kansas as reported by KS WebIZ - 4/11/2021
Kentucky Total Population Vaccinated
Louisiana Initiated vaccine series, includes of any type of vaccine dose - 4/11/2021 completed the 2 vaccine doses series, including the completion of any vaccine with full completion of vaccine series. - 4/11/2021 Determined by summing first and second dose
Maine People who have received the first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine series from Pfizer or Moderna. -3/22/2021 These are fully vaccinated individuals, who have either received the second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, or one dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. -3/22/2021 Total vaccine doses administered to individuals. -3/22/2021
Maryland Number 1st Dose Administered - 4/1/2021 Number 2nd Dose Administered - 4/1/2021 Number Single Dose Administered - 4/1/2021 Total Number of Doses Distributed (First Dose / Second Dose / Single Dose) - 4/1/2021
Massachusetts People who have received the first dose of a two series vaccine series, Pfizer or Moderna. Second dose of a two series vaccination series. After second dose a person results in being fully vaccinated.4-1-21 receiving the only dose in a single dose vaccine .J&J/Janssen.4-1-21 combination of first and second dose received. 4-1-21
Michigan "Initiation" is the percentage of Michigan residents who have received either 1 or more doses of ANY vaccine. 3/30/2021" "Completion" is the percentage of Michigan residents receiving 2 doses of Pfizer or Moderna or 1 dose of J&J. 3/30/2021 COVID Vaccine Doses Administered by Vaccine Type --> J&J 3/30/21 "Number of doses administered"" is the number ofCOVID-19 vaccine doses reported. 3/30/2021"
Minnesota People with at least one vaccine dose: Number of people in Minnesota who have received either a first or second dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. - 4/03/2021 People with completed vaccine series: Number of people in Minnesota who have completed a COVID-19 vaccine series. For the Pfizer and Moderna products, a complete series is two doses. The Johnson & Johnson product is a single-dose vaccine. - 4/03/2021 Total vaccine doses administered: Number of vaccine doses that have been administered to Minnesotans and reported to the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection (MIIC). - 4/03/2021
Mississippi One dose of Pfizer/Moderna or one dose of Janssen (Johnson and Johnson) vaccine -3/22/2021 Second dose of Pfizer/Moderna or one dose of Janssen (Johnson and Johnson) vaccine - 3/22/2021 (total given but no definition) - 3/22/2021
Missouri People who have received at least one dose People who have completed vaccination Total doses administered
Montana "Dose #1 Administered" - Number of first doses of COVID-19 (for vaccines that are part of a two dose series) 3/22/21 Total Montanans Fully Immunized: Total people in Montana that have been fully immunized with the number of doses specific to vaccine manufacturer and ACIP recommendations – updated daily. 3/22/21 "Total Doses Administered" – Number of COVID-19 vaccine doses administered. This includes Dose 1 and Dose 2. 3/22/21
Nebraska Includes all 1st dose and single dose vaccines administered for Nebraska residents; including those that initiated vaccination in another state. Separated by those given using the Nebraska DHHS allotment and those given using the FVP allotment. - 4/03/2021 The number of Nebraska residents that received the 2nd dose of a vaccine (for those vaccines that require a 2nd dose); includes those that received 2nd doses in another state. Separated by those given using the Nebraska DHHS allotment and those given using the FVP allotment. - 4/03/2021 The number of vaccinations given at a Nebraska location includes Nebraska residents and Non-Nebraska residents that received a vaccination at a Nebraska location. This number includes 1st dose (includes 1st dose and single dose) and 2nd doses administered by Nebraska DHHS and FVP providers. - 4/03/2021
Nevada "Total Vaccinations Reported as Initiated" represents the total number of individuals who have at least initiated a vaccine (anone with a single dose vaccine or the first dose of a two-dose series is included). This is a count of unique individuals who have initiated vaccination, at a minimum. It also includes all who have completed their vaccine series 4/30/21 "Total Vaccinations Reported as Completed" represents the total number of individuals who have completed vaccination, whether it is a two-dose series or single dose vaccine. This is also a count of unique individuals, and is a subset of the individuals who are included in initiated 4/30/21 "Total Doses Reported as Administered" represents the total number of vaccine doses reported as administered, so if an individual has received more than one dose as part of a two dose series that are counted twice 4/30/2021
New Hampshire Total dose number 1: received 1 dose of a 2 dose series to be fully vaccinated individuals need to receive 2 doses of Covid 19 vaccination.4-3-21
New Jersey Individuals who have received a single dose from a one-dose vaccine course, e.g., the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, or their first dose from a two-dose vaccine course - 3/22/2021 "fully vaccinated:" Individuals who have received a single dose from a one-dose vaccine course, e.g., the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, or their second dose from a two-dose vaccine course - 3/22/2021 Individuals who have received a single dose from a one-dose vaccine course, e.g., the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, or their first dose from a two-dose vaccine course Total vaccine doses administered includes dose 1, dose 2 and a small number of doses that do not have a dose number yet indicated at the time of data refresh. Therefore, summing across dose 1 and dose 2 will not exactly match the total vaccine administered. - 3/22/2021
New Mexico Number Of New Mexicans With At Least One Shot 3/22/21 Number Of New Mexicans Fully Vaccinated 3/22/21 Total Doses Administered 3/22/21
New York have received one dose of the vaccine. 4-3-21 who have received 2 doses of Pfizer /Moderna or one dose of J&J.4-3-21 total number of vaccine shots, both first and second doses, administered to individuals..4-3-21.
North Carolina all first doses of 2 dose series & single dose series - 3/22/2021 all second doses of 2 dose series - 3/22/2021 first doses, second doses, & single doses -3/22/2021
North Dakota "1 dose coverage rate" 3/23/21 "Up-to-Date Coverage Rate" 3/23/21 "Up-to-Date Coverage Rate" 3/23/21
Ohio “Vaccination started” indicates that the individual has received at least one valid dose of COVID-19 vaccine - 3/22/2021 "“vaccination completed” is a subset of the number included in “vaccination started,” indicating that those individuals within that group have received all recommended COVID-19 vaccine doses and are considered fully immunized" the number of individuals that have started and completed the COVID-19 vaccination series by various demographics and county of residence - 3/22/2021
Oklahoma People with at least one dose. *includes individual count for J&J, Moderna, and Pfizer* - 4/11/2021 completed series of 2 vaccine doses series -4/11/2021 single dose of J&J completion. mixed with prime dose given. - 4/11/2021 Reflects the CDC tracker of administered vaccines. Reported by state, pharmacies, and federal entities. - 4/11/2021
Oregon Series in progress: in progress to complete their vaccination series Series completed: completed their vaccination series Number of Johnson and Johnson doses administered Doses administered by day: total number of COVID19 vaccination doses that have been given to residents
Pennsylvania "Partially Covered" means that the person has received at least one COVID-19 vaccine but has not yet received the necessary number of vaccines at the recommended time intervals to be Fully Covered. At present, all COVID-19 vaccines under EUA require two doses. As such, an individual partially covered has only received one dose in the two-dose series. 3/30/2021 "Fully Covered" means that the person has received the necessary number of COVID-19 vaccines at the recommended time intervals. 3/30/2021 Total vaccinations administered 3/30/2021
Puerto Rico Personas con al mesos una dois (People with at least one dose) *includes individual count for J&J, Moderna, and Pfizer* Personas con serie de vacunas completadas (People with completed vaccine series) Dosis administradas (Administered doses) *only available at country (state) level*
Rhode Island Partially vaccinated: one dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine Number of people fully vaccinated received both doses of either Pfizer or Moderna, or the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
South Carolina "Total SC Residents with at least 1 Vaccine" 4/30/21 "Total SC Residents who have Completed" 4/30/21 Total Janssen doses given 4/30/21 "Total Doses Received by SC Residents" is defined as any individual who received 1 or 2 doses within the state of South Carolina 4/30/21
South Dakota # of persons (1 dose) - 3/23/2021 # of persons (2 dose) - 3/23/2021 # of persons administered Janssen - 4/1/2021 Total Doses Administered 3/22/21
Tennessee % county pop. with series initiation (1 dose of Pfizer/Moderna) - 3/22/2021 % county pop. with series completion; (2 doses of Pfixer/Moderna OR 1 dose of J&J) -3/22/2021 % of county pop. with at least 1 dose (any manufacturer) - 3/22/2021
Texas Number of people vaccinated with one dose is defined as the number of people who have received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. - 3/23/2021 Number of people fully vaccinated is defined as the number of people who have completed the full series (2 doses of Moderna or Pfizer or 1 dose of Janssen vaccine), as outlined by the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). - 3/23/2021 The number of vaccine doses administered, number of people vaccinated with one dose and number of people fully vaccinated are aggregated by the recipient’s county of residence in the first worksheet. - 3/23/2021
Utah People received at least one dose: anyone who has received one or more doses of a two dose vaccine, like Moderna or Pfizer, or a one dose vaccine like Johnson and Johnson. This represents all people in Utah whether they are fully vaccinated or partially vaccinated People fully vaccinated: anyone who has completed their vaccine series, either two doses of a two dose vaccine like Pfizer or Moderna, or one dose of a single dose vaccine like Johnson and Johnson. Total vaccine doses administered
Vermont Total people started indicates the number of people who have only received the first dose of a two-dose vaccine (Moderna or Pfizer). Total people completed indicates the number of people who completed all doses of the vaccine required (i.e., one for Johnson & Johnson and two for Moderna or Pfizer). Doses administered reflects the total number of doses that have been given to people in Vermont, or were reported to Vermont.
Virginia "first dose:" Total number of people who received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, including those who received one dose of the one-dose Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen (J&J) COVID-19 vaccine. This metric includes all people who have received only one dose and those who received at least one dose. -3/22/2021 "fully vaccinated:" Total number of people who have completed the recommended series of a given vaccine product (i.e., two doses of the two-dose Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine or one dose of the one-dose Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen (J&J) COVID-19 vaccine). - 3/22/2021 *same as first dose -3/22/2021 This number represents the total doses administered to individuals in Virginia, regardless of whether it was a first dose or a second dose. This number will be greater than the number of individuals who have received at least one dose because some people will have received more than one dose. -3/22/2021
Washington People initiating vaccination (Receiving at least one dose) *includes people given one dose of any type of vaccine People fully vaccinated (Completed recommended number of doses) *People who are fully vaccinated are included in the count of both people initiating vacc. & people fully vaccinated
West Virginia People with At Least One Dose. Represents the people who received at least one dose of Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and includes those who received one dose of the single-shot Johnson and Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. This metric includes everyone who has received only one dose and those who received more than one dose. People who Are Fully Vaccinated: represents the number of people who have received the second dose of Pfizer or Modern COVID-19 vaccine or one dose of the single-shot Johns and Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. The total number of vaccine doses that have been given to people in West Virginia. Includes doses administered at the state level and doses administered through federal programs that includes retail pharmacy and Federal Qualified Health Center.
Wisconsin "Residents who have received at least one dose" 3/30/2021 "residents who have completed the vaccine series" 3/30/21 J&J doses administered 3/30/2021 Total vaccine doses administered: The cumulative number of COVID-19 vaccines administered 3/30/2021
Wyoming First dose administered (%) Pfizer and Moderna - 3/23/2021 Second dose administered (%) Pfizer and Moderna - 3/23/2021 Doses administered Janssen - 3/23/2021 Total of 1st, 2nd, and Janssen doses administered 3/23/2021

Methodology

 

Data Limitations


There were various stages in which data collection began for each state within our dataset, as the vaccine team grew. At the start, the focus was just on archiving as much data as possible and that data was saved in shared google folders for later entry. Data collection began with 18 states out of 52, including DC and Puerto Rico. In May, data collection on the remaining states and DC and Puerto Rico began. Due to the inability to collect all data from the beginning, there are gaps present in the dataset. Some states provide historical data on their dashboards, allowing for some gaps to be filled. However, others do not, and that data is no longer recoverable. Within the dataset, dashes are inputted for any states where data was not collected on those dates. If any archived data or historical data exists, those gaps will be filled in retroactively. The table below provides a more in-depth view of when data collection began for each state and whether any historical data exists for that state.


Table 2. Data Collection by State


State Date Entry Began Historical Data/Archives
Alabama 5/14/21 Yes, state level data from 2/10 to 3/16
Alaska 5/13/21 No
Arizona 5/12/21 Yes, just total doses
Arkansas 5/13/21 No
California 4/1/21 Yes, from 12/15/20
Colorado 5/10/21 Yes, 1/9/21
Connecticut 4/29/21 Yes, data by week
District of Columbia 5/15/21 Yes, archives from 3/19
Delaware 5/13/21 Yes
Florida 5/12/21 No
Georgia 5/12/21 Yes
Hawaii 5/14/21 Yes
Idaho 5/13/21 Yes, archived from 3/23
Illinois 5/13/21 No
Indiana 4/1/21 Yes, archived from 3/23
Iowa 4/5/21 Yes, archived from 3/22
Kansas 5/14/21 No
Kentucky 5/14/21 No
Louisiana 5/13/21 No
Maine 4/4/21 3/23/21
Maryland 5/15/21 No
Massachusetts 5/14/21 Yes
Michigan 5/13/21 Yes
Minnesota 4/10/21 No
Mississippi 5/12/21 Yes, archived from 3/23
Missouri 5/14/21 Yes, archived from 3/22
Montana 4/5/21 Yes, archived from 3/22
Nebraska 5/14/21 No
Nevada 5/16/21 No
New Hampshire 5/13/21 Yes
New Jersey 4/5/21 Yes, archived from 3/22/21
New Mexico 4/29/21 Yes, archived from 3/22/21
New York 4/3/21 No
North Carolina 4/12/21 Yes, archived from 3/23/21
North Dakota 5/13/21 Yes, archived from 3/22/21
Ohio 5/13/21 Yes
Oklahoma 5/13/21 No
Oregon 5/9/21 No
Pennsylvania 4/29/21 Yes
Puerto Rico TBD, issues with data collection, data not included in this release No
Rhode Island 5/13/21 Yes
South Carolina 4/17/21 Yes, archives from 3/22/21
South Dakota 4/5/21 Yes, archives from 3/22/21
Tennessee 4/29/21 Yes, archives from 3/22/21
Texas 4/5/21 Yes, archives from 3/22/21
Utah 5/15/21 Yes
Vermont 5/13/21 Yes
Virginia 4/12/21 Yes
Washington 5/10/21 No
West Virginia 5/13/21 No
Wisconsin 5/15/21 No
Wyoming 4/5/21 Yes, archives from 3/23/21

Beginning on March 29, 2021, a team of approximately 12 volunteers from the BroadStreet team began tracking vaccine data. At the start of collection, the focus was on archiving data from 18 state dashboards that updated daily and overwrote their data within a 24-hour period. This data was saved in a shared google folder to be entered into spreadsheets at a later date. As capacity grew, states were slowly shifted to data entry. Due to the fact that data was being archived in the beginning of data collection, the dataset is not fully complete and any data prior to when official entry on a given state began is currently filled in with dashes in the dataset. Those entries will be updated as that data is retroactively filled in and included in future releases.

Data Entry

 

Each day, data entry team members enter data from state or county health departments onto a shared google sheet. To limit errors, each state had its own tab with counties and variables listed for each day. At the top of each day, there is a row for calculated totals which is determined from the sum of county entries and a row for reported state totals, the numbers of which should be the same. After entering in data for a given day, interns would then check to make sure those numbers equated to each other, and if they didn’t, they reviewed their entry for errors. If no errors were found, Project Leads were notified of the discrepancy for further investigation. In multiple instances it was found that those numbers did not always result in the same value and very rarely was there any indication on the dashboard as to why that may be the case. After entry was completed, the Project Leads would then do a first check to ensure data was filled in completely, and matched reported state totals. Cumulative totals should, by definition, be constantly trending upwards. In any instance where the totals decreased from the previous day, we investigated the cause of the revision and corrected historic data accordingly. Health departments frequently do not report the information needed to correct these “trend breaks.” In some instances, health departments move individuals out of the “1st Dose” category when they receive their “2nd Dose” or are Fully Vaccinated (they have completed a full series of either a two-dose series or 1-dose of a single dose series), which results in a decrease in 1st Dose numbers between days.

Data Source

 

Interns collect data from health department sites at the state level. Currently, the states where data entry is occurring have data available at the county-level on a centralized state dashboard. As more states are added, the need for health department sites at the county-level will be assessed and added to the data sources.

Data Collection & Input

 

Data is collected every day for all 50 states, plus DC and Puerto Rico. Some still report data at just the state-level, so county-level data is not yet determinable for all states.

Data is collected as cumulative doses rather than new daily doses. Both unknown and out-of-state administration of vaccines are also recorded if available and listed on the dashboard. Any doses that are not linked to a specific county or are not explicitly stated as out-of-state, are recorded in the unknown category.

When counties report data as a percentage, the percentage for each variable is multiplied by the total number of doses administered to determine the raw data, unless otherwise stated on the dashboard (some report as % of county population rather than % of total doses).

Missing Data

 

Intermittently, volunteers miss recording data from states that regularly overwrite the data on their state dashboard. Since there is no comparison set for use and, in almost all cases, historical data is not present, the current protocol is to copy over the data from the last completed day to fill in the gaps.. Systems are being implemented to prevent this in the future. In the event that those systems are insufficient in capturing the data or fail to provide a complete data set, data from the most recent day will continue to be carried over.

Data Challenges

Changes in Process

 

During early months, we found that most states were reporting single dose vaccines with either first dose or second dose numbers. Slowly as the J&J vaccine became more widely used, states started separating out single dose vaccines and reporting them separately. As those changes occurred, we corrected our reporting to follow suit and edited definitions as needed. On March 27th, 2021, Indiana started reporting single doses for vaccines separately at the county level. We started recording single dose vaccinations for the state. Prior to April 14th, 2021, as a result of the way Indiana displays its data, some interns were reporting the number for fully vaccinated in the total doses column, which only included second dose and single dose numbers. This was corrected on April 14th to reflect the number of total doses administered, prior to this some discrepancies in the number of total doses is present and was noted on the spreadsheet. On April 14th, 2021, we began separating Janssen (J&J) vaccines from the “Number of People of Initiating Vaccine Series'', allowing for single doses to be captured separately from 1st doses of Moderna and Pfizer vaccines administered for South Dakota. Prior to this, single dose counts were being included in the first dose counts due to the way the data was displayed. On April 23rd, 2021, New Jersey began reporting total Janssen doses administered at the state level. On May 5th, 2021, it was noted that Chicago County, Illinois was missing from the data entry sheet and was added at that time. Prior to this, any data for this county was missed.

Accessibility of Data: Geographic Breakdown

 

States differ in how they present their data and the geographic breakdowns they provide. Most states report vaccine information at both the state- and county-level, however a handful report only state-level data. In the case where only state-level data is available, the dataset is filled in with zeros for each county and only the state totals row is inputted with numbers. Some states provide geographic breakdowns that are not at the county-level, like Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Utah. Oklahoma only provides a breakdown of vaccine data by zip code. Nebraska only provides vaccine data by health district. Utah provides vaccine data as a mix of jurisdictions and counties. Due to the fact that all the data is not explicitly listed for a single county, this makes it challenging to capture the data accurately at the county-level. Currently in the dataset, unless a county is listed in their reporting, these states only have data inputted for the state totals and zeros inputted for the counties. As some of that data may be able to be translated into county-level information, that will change to reflect that information.

Accessibility of Data: Formatting

 

State websites report data related to the COVID-19 pandemic in various formats, which complicates any efforts to automate data entry. Formats used to report vaccine data include .csv, .pdf, GIS, Microsoft BI, Tableau, and plain text.

Suggested Citation


When using data images, downloaded data, or shared document formats, please attribute BroadStreet as well as the original source, when applicable. For examples and more information, review this article which answers the question "How do I cite BroadStreet?"